Saturday, December 31, 2011

SOALAN PAST YEAR TITAS

 TITAS/ TAMADUN ISLAM DAN TAMADUN ASIA




 sets 1. slamat mencuba kawan2..










SET 2!! maaaf sdikit kelam kabut ape kate korg susun sndiri no soklan tue. haha~































s0! slamat mencuba dan semoga berjaya kepada kawan2 yg akan menjawab exam SUBJEK TITAS PADA 3/1/2012. ni soklan tahun lepas punya tau jgn salah faham soklan bocor lak... haha. banyak2kan buat latihan. ade 2 hr lagi. gudluck guys! ^_^  DIS PICT CREDIT TO :PBMSK.  ^_^ jawapn smua ade lam slide. haha.. (actually wa pun xde jawapnnyer..) =P okbai #LuvU #GiveMe5 #SpreadTheLOVE...LG3D ^_^SOALAN PAST YEAR TITAS

AMBANG 2012 YANG GHAIRAH!

Assalam & hi hi peepz! ^_^  happy new year to all my viewers from malaysia, russia, german philipines south korea, vietnam & indonesia.
    amacam sronok ke countdown???  wa ? eh mestilah sronok giler.. tgok tajukla beb! haha GHAIRAH Gitu.. haha. sekarang wa baru je abis 'lepaking' dgn member2 lam bilik.. hah? lam bilik? ehem...

mase wa dgn member2 lam bilik, di saat ustaz idrus bersama zizan, sham, dll membuat countdown dkat shah alam.. wa hanya dgn ghairahnya countdown lam bilik jer... hahaha..
(eee..ape yg korg pikir ni? otak kuningla korg! hahaha). maksud wa, wa tgh ghairah study subjek TITAS dgn member lam bilik.. tapi di saat ambang 2012, "kebunyian" bunga api meletup2 sana sini di sekitar gambang pahang. bilik kiteorg mengadap pemandangan luar hostel s0 boleh tgok bunga api~~ haha UNTUNGLAAA~~~ (dont be jelosss kayh..). wahhh!! syanteknyewww bunga api.  actually wa dgn member seddih giler xdpt countdown bersama ustaz idrus dkat shah alam..( bersama elak dari zina).. mesti best.




 haa om0ng pasal zina/ maksiat ni kan, wa ingin ucapkan syabas buat mahasiswa dn mahasiswi UMP. sbb malam ni wa tgok xde sorg pun yg 'berbueno'/ berdating d tempat gelap/tersembunyi~ (alamak kantoi lak wa ni kaki skodeng). syabas gak buat senior kakak2 abng2 yg meronda utk memastikan tiada maksiat berlaku..( tu lam kampus, kat luar wa x thu la yer.. lu org tanggung sndiri dosa lu haa..)

       s0! ape azam baru korg! azam wa macm biaselah.."eh malula nk cakap" haha..(xbleh blah ayt).
hopefully uolls menjadi insan yg lebih baek dari yg tahun lepas kayh..? ^_^

and wish me good luck for the final exam. 3/1/2012. kami2 disini xboleh nk berpoya-poya sgt sbb ade tanggungjawab yg lebih besar. lagipun tahun baru bagi kami dah lama lepas iaitu masa MAAL HIJRAH ^_*wink.. (ABIS EXAM NI MEMANG WA nk lepaskan geram wa hanya dgn lepak bersama kawan2 & tgok movie RUNNING MAN! (my fav variety show). HAHA.. beesttttt! oklah slamat malam korg. AGAIN! slamat tahun baru. korg di alu-alukan utk komen / mengutuk gaya tulisan wa ni. wa x kesah nokzzz.. haha.

#LuvU #GiveMe5 #SpreadTheLOVE... sambung balik study titas nie.. *DGNghairahNYA*

Thursday, December 29, 2011

OMBAK RINDU!

HI HI! PEEPZ! ^_^  ombak rindu??

   ahahaha..sorry2 rasenye wa lah org yg paling ketinggalan keteapi. haha org lain dh tgok ombak rindu dah lama..siap lam panggung lagi kaaan. tapi wa baru je lepas tgok. tu pun donload dr UMPsharing..MUEHEHEHEHE! =P.
   s0! nk kongsi c ket pasal rindu yg ber0MBAK ni. mase tgh tayang dkat panggung, wa rasa la kan bukan stakat berOMBAK malah ribut taufan, angin badai, dan tsunami bagai org duk kate citer ni seddih bagai nk gilerr~ malah ade artis malaysia kata dye tgok 2 kali 2 kali nangis!  malah hr tu reza dj era pun ade tweet kate dye pun nagis tgok ombak rindu.. ape  kes?? haha..opssssss sorry.. TAPI wa nk kongsi sikit pengalaman wa tgok citer nieh. nak thu...???


     mesti sape yg bace ni kate..( "buat ape nk thu? x naaak thu puuun..") kan? hahah..wa x kire! wa nk kasi thu gak. s0! citer dye slama 2 jam 3 saat. slama timing nie..., kalau korg nk thu, xde satu part pun yg berjaya buat wa nangis.. wa lagi gelak adela!! muahahahahaha! (mcm gitu + *gelakgulingguling* ).



tapi wa ad diam kejap mase part dialoque "xde perkara yg paling bahagia bagi seorg wanita selain jd seorg ibu"- ayat ni buat wa terharu ( time ni wa tgh pikir mesti ibu wa bahagia lahirkan anak yg comel + super awesome macm wa ni kan? hahaha..). wa redho jela..sbb wa memang ank ibu yg paling zwesome! hehe.. "tu bukan redho! tu pasrah! redho itu ikhlas, pasrah itu menyerah" oklah..wa pasrah yg wa ni semamangnye tersangat awesome+ comel! haha...

             nak memendekkan citer. Ombak rindu ni x de la seddih seperti yg d uar-uarkan org ramai (korg la tu ). S0 anugerah filem terbaek akhir tahun  thun 2011 nie x dpt kepada ombak rindu kayh.. hehehe =P sape yg x stuju dgn pendapt  wa ni sila buat buat stuju kalau x nk kena tibai.. muehehehe =P S0! WA HARAP 1 lagi citer yg di adaptasi dr novel akan meletop iaitu BICARA HATI. knapa wa cakap mcm tu? sbb....hero Malaya & hero di hati wa ni jadi pelakon utama! Iaitu sharnaaz ahmad ( #wa peminat sharnaz k..#sharnanas ) hehhe... s0 harap2 citer bicara hati best!

Oklah xnak citer manyak t xde sape sudi dengr bebelan makcik sparuh siap nieh. Hri pun dh maghrib! Okbai... thanks for reading dis blog. N also thanks to my  nice viewers ^_^  #LuvU #GiveMe5 #SpreadTheLOVE... 

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

HOW TO MAKE STEAM-BOAT/POTT POTT BOAT

 memandangkan dh ramai bukk my blog dlm masa brape saat saje after i update it, s0 sy sgt yakin yg student UMP masih ramai lagi x buat pott2 boat tu kan? s0! click here guys... u will know everything about genius science!....   http://www.sciencetoymaker.org/index.html // http://www.sciencetoymaker.org/boat/index.htm


 #LuvU #GiveMe5 #SpreADTHElove...

STEAM-BOAT/POTT POTT BOAT

AsSalam! & hi hi peepz! ^_^...

 d0 u remember dat, my group & i got a task to build a STEAMBOAT (MINI) ??  & i'll update the vid in u tube?? OH YEAHHH!! hahaha jawapannya..ALAMAK!! "houston! we got a big problem!" haha...
kalau korg nk thu group wa baru abis presentation pasal boat tu. ok sebenarnya presentation tu mula dari 8.30 pagi lagi..dan baru abis! LAMA X? lama giler kaan? first TEST, kiteorg test for accuracy.., & we got 23 second for 2.55 meter. (nilai yg lectrr nak, 20 second for 22.5) PEH!!!! sikit lagi...S0, boat kiteorg yg namanya  "SUGAR DADDY" was FAILED!! huhuh..s0, we go to the second test for accuracy... here we go...

      TARAAAAAAAA!!!! our SUGAR DADDY speed up to 17.88 second for 2.55 meter!! HIP HIP HUREYY!!! HAHhahaha..kiteorg sronok giler time tu. sampai lompat2. ok tgok balik ayat.. "accuracy of run boat, 20 second for 2.55 meter.."  walaupun laju, still x accurate. haha jauh sgt antara 20 second dgn 17.88 second. maknanya FAILED LAGI!!! haha.. ( s0, terdpt missconception kat situ). mood kiteorg dh down dah.. tapi dpt gak r markah 6/10. s0 dsbbkan boat kiteorg ni laju, SUGAR DADDY terpilih utk ke SPRINT TEST! ...

wah!!! sronoknyer....

AFTER 5 MIN...

  ..........................................
                              .............................................
                                                           ..................................................


     KITEORG RENOVATE BALIK BOAT UTK SPRINT TEST NIH!... jeng3!  kalau nk thu sape yg berjaya beat time 6.25 second, dyeorg yg akan menang. kiteorg dh rasa nk menang dah nieh. memang dah dapt rasakan aura2 ke-victory-an tu ade.... s0! firstly panaskan enjin.. here we g0...

pott pott pott...(bunyi 3 kali je. bunyi macm kentut ko je kan? haha). pastu collapse! huhu...my SUGAR DADDY was collapse for the starting SPRINT TEST. s0 SAD u know...S0, AGAIN.. OUR SUGAR DADDY... FAILED LAGI...huhu.. tu la citer nye.. seddih x? kiteorg xdpt 4 markah utk sprint test, tapi wa bagi smangat balik dkat team member yg lain ... sekurang kurangnya kite dah dpt 6 markah.. ^_*

    s0 motif wa tulis panjang2 nie cumalah nk cakap yg dalam kesibukan membaiki SUGAR DADDY kami, kami x sempat nk rakam proses proses kejadian tu. (smua org tgh kusyuk giler time nieh + pening kepala cari solution masalh ). s0, XDELAH vid
pasal SUGAR DADDY..S0RRY sape yg nk tgok sgt tue.. but, wa ingt wa akn update pasal design dan macm mana boat tu nk buat. s0 see u next time in dis blog! ^_^ wink2...











HA..ni la group yg masa 6.25 second for 2.55 meter tue. (giler laju boat dye.) s0 abng ni wakil tuk group dyeorg skali. sorryla pict dari blakang sbb sy memang special sikit sy duduk dgn lectrr2 yg ade dkat blakang tu... #ok ayat last skali tu tipuu je..# actually wa penat sbb stengah hr wa rush nk jayakn boat wa tu. so penat. so dpt intai2 sikit result di tgn lectrr.. haha =P








video
layan sikit vid group yg last skali... haha tapi time nieh smua dh habis. grouP dyeorg je x test accuracy lagi... tapi akhirnya pertimbangan lectrr, dyeorg dpt gak test. tapi...... joms layanzzzzzzzzzzz JELAH!~~
@  macam biase x mo tgok kat sini.., click here...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQafiZ4u27E&context=C3461e9eADOEgsToPDskJS3chO3iM43ODu-H3-r6Qu



   S0! (banyak "so" la plak hr ni). macm biase. thanks for sakit2kan matamu & membazirkan masa emasmu utk membaca ini... thanks to my nice viewers ^_^ okbai nk p basuh kaen! #LuvU #GiveMe5 #SpreadTheLOVE... *seddih*  kalah.... ~_~

Sunday, December 25, 2011

ANUGERAH ALLAH KPD ADIK NUR ATIKAH NABILAH!

salam & hi hi peepz! ^_^. dini hari yg sejuk ini (pehhh! sejuk sampai ketulang babe!). wa nk story mory sikit pasal anugerah yg dikurniakn oleh TUHAN(ALLAH) kpd adik nur atikah  nabilah. actually wa baru je lpas  tgok vid  adik atikah nyanyi dalam blog mynewshub. herm...




      SEDAP SUARA DYE. menurut penulis mynewshub, suara yg merdu itu satu anugerah TUHAN. memang x dpt disangkal lagi. tapi kalau kite tgok balik dn renung2 sikit kaaaan? adik atikah merupakn modal insan negara bangsa & agama. s0, bagi wa la kn, wa x stuju kalau adik atikah di didik utk menjadi seorg penyanyi. adik atikah perlu di didik dgn ilmu agama seperti mengaji al-quran ke... lagi best! sbb, korg smua thu suara perempuankan aurat! skrang ok la kn? sbb masih kechik. tapi kalau dh besar nnt? macm mana? ehem..ehem.. wa pun bukan bagus sgt soal agama nieh. tapi cukup2lah dgn artis pompuan yg ada dkat malaysia ni. hehehe..=P wa pun kadang2 nyanyi gak.. tapi cukup skadar lam bilik & menyakitkan telinga room-mates nieh. hahaha! (sore wa pun sdap mcm shila amzah pe.. =P ) ok..ayt lam kurungn tu tipu je..

      ok! sambung balik!. artis pompuan yg dah  besar ni biarkn diaorg. tapi yg masih kechik nieh, kite patut didik dgn elok2. ( melentur buluh biarlah dari rebungnya.// pehh! mantop x peribahasa wa?) #seeTheLeqLaBEB!  org yg dah besar nieh, kalau kite nasihat, susah sikit sbb dye dah pandai berpikir sndr. s0, itu pilihan dye. lantak dye lah! =P opssssssss...(wa peminat no 1 shila amzah tau! mueheheheh =P ) ~jgnhiraukn lam kurungn xde kaitan pun~
       
       s0, kalau2lah ibubapa adik atikah baca ni, herm...(ok speechless) renung2kn (eleh! bajet ade org bace blog dye! puiii! ). AGAIN! PERINGATAN, wa pun bukan bagus sgt. ^_^ kalau wa jd ibubapa adik atikah, wa nk dengar sgt sore adik atikah ni mengaji. mesti sdap kan? hermm..oklah tu saje coretan sy dini hari ni (wow! dh 3.27 pagi doeh! ).  utk tgok vid adik atikah & baca artikel tu sepenuhnya, macam biase, click here..(http://mynewshub.my/2011/12/09/merdunya-suara-nur-atikah-nabilah/)

     okbai.. thank for reading dis bebel-an MAKCIKK sparuh siap yer.. hehehe =P
xlupa thanks to my nice viewer & follower. #okbai #LuvU! #GiveMe5  #SpreadTheLOVE...


                                      ~HUH! kan bagus kalau SHILA AMZAH nyanyi lagu tuk aq~ #shilalas #haiyebiu #pelukramairamai

Saturday, December 24, 2011

I NEED A SPECIALIST (doctor)


hello peepz! today i have a very big problem (saying houston). u know what?! i need to see a specialist in this month. herm.. now my feeling is not too good. i'm so damm worried u know. s0... (ADUSS! sangat susah nk cakap omputih nih. dahla grammar aq tunggang langgang.) sayangilah bahasa ibunda kite. ( BM pun x betoiii gakk..). s0! wa rasa inilah dugaan/ ujian yg wa trima sbg motivasi utk final exam kot??? erk?? entahla korg. penyakit ni makin hari makin teruk. (exam ade 10 days more ) wa harap sgt2 yg TUHAN x menguji melebihi kemampuan wa. mood today is not so good. feeling sick. ape lagi nk cakap. tapi seangkatan dengannya lah yer... TO my nice VIEWER, please pray(berdoa) for me..k ? I'm just wanna be normal like uolls...huhu~ ok its time to MINUM ubat (LIQUID PHASE) okbai.. #IluvU!! #GiveME5 oh ya.. sblum terlupa thanks to dr. di hospital tengku ampuan fatimah kuantan pahang sbb.... (adela.. ^_* ). huv a nice day ya uolss..

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

DICABUL DI HOSTEL!! OMG...

 OMG OMG OMGGGGGGG.!!!!  ape ke hea la nie. sampai hati org ni mencabuli haq wa. korg nk tahu x... EH! lupe lak.. HI HI! ^_^ korg....,

ade org yg x bertanggungjawab telah mencabul haq wa... org tu tlah 'merembat' payung kesayngn wa (warna biru!). huhu..seddih tol pg ni p klass basah kuyup..huh! (karang ade jugak wa sumpah si pencuri tu jd payung kanopi..) boleh gak para penjual buat berteduh!. . mcm terdesak sgt x leh nk beli payung sdri. tapi xpew. tu smua harta dunia. wa skang dh x sedih lgi..cume geram je.. s0! jap agi wa nk buat announcement " kepada sesiape yg tlah senang hati mengambil payung saya, silalh dtng amik sarungnyer skali. sbb kesian lak xde sarung kn. sekian terima kasih" ^_^
 hanya tinggal sarung.

herm...kalau korg nk mencuri tue, jgn curi separuh. curi smua skali. barulah berbaloi org kata..hahhaa =P #tapi wa x galakkan my nice viewer mencuri kayh..^_^#

#IKTIBAR# sblum mencuri pikirlah akibat pada diri dn org lain#~ xde pekdahnye...
oklah hr ni hujan x brenti. sejuk2 camni best gak kalau berpelukan... kAN? hehe... otak kuninglah korg! wa nk ciao luh sbb nk berpelukan dgn bantal busyuk ni (tdow!!) okbai.. THANKS FOR view! ^_^
~MAAPLAH tajuk xde kaitan dgn issue di atas. haha ~

Berita Harian Online | Radioaktif Jepun cemar Pasifik

Berita Harian Online | Radioaktif Jepun cemar Pasifik

Saturday, December 17, 2011

APA DAH JADI??!!!!

ASsalam & hi  to my nice viewer! ^_^. apa dah jadi?!!! gempak x tajuk? herm... actually today i want to story mory sikit kisah hidupku pada hari ni ~ w16/12/11-17/12/11~.  silakan sakitkan matamu membaca kisah ini..heheh =P
        starting 16/12/11. hari jumaat. sape sangka wa xde klass hr ni! wah besttnyeeeeeeeeeeee.... hahaha! (jgn jeloss!). s0 satu hr wa terperap lam bilik n pikir mcm mana wa nk settlekn project work wa yg tarikh submitnya dh dekat. pehhhhh! bengang sioooot. s0, mlm tu, wa buat meeting wif my team member to finish our project! (konon je..). meeting punya meeting, project kami tetp x jd. (eh korg thu x ape project kami??) haha..lupa nk cakp. group kami kena buat steam-boat (bukn mknnn yer..///korg ni asyik ingt maaaakn je.=P). mlm tu our meeting end up wif nothing improvement!. hermm wa sbg ketua kumpln mestila rasa susah hati kn..s0 wa berjaga spnjang malam memikirkn mcm mana nk c yap kn boat yg x bergerak! (sbb kesalahn pengiraan tekann dan haba yg hilang di permukaan).-korg mesti kompius wa pompuan tpi buat boat?? haaha.. plis erk..boat tu bukn besar gedaba' tau..haha kechik je mendenye. boleh buat brg mainan puun. lagipun wa student engineering (but not decide yet the major. huhu..). after dis i'll update my project in u tube.. ^_*. kejuruteraan skrng dh dimonopoli kaum hawa tau. jgn x thu tu... (tpi cita2ku ttp nk jd surirumah yg berjaya kelak..haha rugi? x rugi.. ilmu di tuntut smpai akhir hayat kn..)
          s0,sambung citer tadi! wa buat research pasal steam boat ni. cari punya cari, wah!! dapaaaatlah!! haha.., mcm biaselah (perangai manusia bila dh buntu!) wa create my boat exactly same wif ( geniusscience.com). satu malam sudah siap! haha..(sronok rase). TAPIIIIIII....
           tapi...bila wa test engine boat tu, ALAMMMAAAAAK.. x bergerak jugak..(huhu ape kena dgn engine ni plak? xknla wa salah kira ukuran kot?). lepas subuh wa sambung balik repair boat yg x jd tu. ALHAMDULILLAH... hari pun dah masuk hari sabtu 17/12/11! dan seb baek slepas renovate balik, akhirnya jadi gak.heheh =P now i;m hepy giler..x sbr nk bgtau my team member yg laen. woohoo!!

      but. BETUL KATA ORANG. dalam keseronokan ada kesedihan. dalam kelegaan ada keresahan...
sronok punya sronok, sampai wa terlupa yg wa ade 1 minggu lg final exam! now sronok dh hilang cuma ada keresahan dan gelisah. sbb wa rasa wa dh x sempat nk kejar subject yg wa tertinggal dulu ..( bnyak ponteng kelas beb!) (~_~). oleh tu seminggu ni wa kena gunakn masa ni sebaiknye. nk focus kpd exam! hopefully dpt study hard ( dh terlmbt nk study smart).~ sbg inisiatif lain. wa dh xon9 fb n twitter.. (^_^). dptla elak dr waste time mcm tu je. (kawal nafsu sosial)

    errr..actually wa tgh ngantok ni sbb satu hr suntuk x tdow lagi. so x thu ape yg wa merepek ni #merepekmoment#  oklh tu je wa nk merepek, skng dh petg masa tuk wa basuh kaen. hehe..(berlambak kaen busyuk lam baldi tu. ade org nk tlng basuh x? ) =P ~ thank for view dis blog luv my nice viewer! ^_^ okbai. from #budakhostel# @ GSI-aya.

Sunday, December 11, 2011

EXAMPLE EXPERIMENT UV-vis SPECTROPHOTOMETER


CONTENTS

CONTENTS
   PAGE
Abstract
      2
Introduction
      3
Literature review
      4
Objectives
      6
Methodology
      7
Results
      8
Discussion
      9
Conclusion and recommendation
     11
Reference
     12
Appendix
     13




Abstract

This experiment wasabout concentration dependent absorbance values, determined using a UV-vis spectrometer which gives the value of absorbance of a solution based on the amount of light absorbed by the solution. The primary objective of this experiment is to determine the absorbance of copper sulphate solutions of different concentrations. Besides, the absorbance of a sodium chloride sample solution was also determined by using the same method.
In this experiment, copper sulphate solutions of concentrations 28g/L, 14g/L, 7g/L, 3.5g/L, and 1.75g/L were prepared in volumetric flasks from solid copper sulphate. The five solutions were labeled c1 to c5 following the sequence. A solution of NaCl was also prepared and labeled as X. These solutions, and distilled water were placed into the UV-vis spectrometer to determine their absorbance. Before the measurement was taken, the UV-vis spectrometer was adjusted so that the wave length of the emitted light was at a wavelength of 800nm. The absorbance value of distilled water was recorded as reference.
While measuring the absorbance of the solutions, the quartz cells containing the solutions must be clear from fingerprints because the fingerprints might affect the amount of UV light that reached the detector in UV-vis spectrometer. Therefore, tissue paper is used to wipe off the fingerprints before inserting the quartz cells into the UV-vis spectrometer.
The experiment basically showed that absorbance increases with the concentration of a solution, obeying Beer-Lambert’s Law.










Introduction

A UV-vis spectrophotometer is a research instrument used to gather information about a chemical sample by determining the absorbtion or transmission of UV-vis light by the sample. It can also be used to measure the concentration of the absorbing materials based on the calibration curves produced.
A UV-vis spectrophotometer exposes a chemical solution to the ultraviolet and visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum when the chemical solution is placed in the UV-vis beam. Depending on the type of chemical, a certain amount of light gets absorbed by the chemical which causes electrons to be promoted from one energy level to another. The amount of light which is not being absorbed will pass through the chemical to the detector. The amount of light that reaches the detector is then recorded as a spectrum. A spectrum is a graphical representation of the amount of light absorbed or transmitted by matter as a function of the wavelength. Since the samples are prepared in known concentrations, the graphed results make a calibration curve from which the unknown concentration can be determined by its absorbance. 
A UV-visible spectrophotometer measures absorbance or transmittance from the UV range from which the human eye is not sensitive to the visible wavelength range to which the human eye is sensitive to.











Literature review

When light passes through a substance, light of certain wavelength is being absorbed by the substance, while the rest of the light will pass through the substance, or being reflected by the substance. For example, when light passes through a solution of copper sulphate, the copper ions in the solution absorbed the visible lights from the red end of the spectrum. The blue light reflects into our eyes and this is why the copper sulphate solution appears to be blue to our eyes.
However, substances do not only absorb lights from the visible region of the wavelength. They also absorb invisible light, for example UV rays, dependent on the type of substance.
Since different substances absorb light of different wavelength, this can be used to determine the type of substance in a sample.
A UV-visible spectrometer can be used to measure the absorbance of solutions. light beams of wavelength in the visible region, and the UV region are passed through the solutions, where light of certain wavelengths are absorbed, and the rest will reach the detector. The detector converts the incoming light into a current. The higher the current, the greater the intensity of the light.
For each wavelength of light passing through the spectrometer, the intensity of the light passing through the reference cell is measured. This is usually referred to as Io, where I is the intensity. The intensity of the light passing through the sample cell is also measured for that wavelength, given the symbol I.
The relationship between absorbance,A and the two intensities is given by:
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/analysis/uvvisible/absorbance.gif
From the equation, it is shown that A is a value without unit.


The derived equation, A=ebc
Where
A is absorbance
e is the molar absorbivity
b is the path length of the sample
is the concentration of the compound in solution
shows that concentration of a solution is directly proportional to its absorbance value.

A UV-vis spectrometer is generallly used in analytical chemistry, especially in the quantitativeanalysis of transition metal ions, highly conjugated organic compounds, and biological macromolecules. Determination is usually carried out in solutions.















Objectives

1.      To determine absorbance of solutions at different concentrations.
The absorbance values of copper sulphate solutions of different concentrations is to be determined using a UV-vis spectrometer.

2.      To determine the concentration of given samples.

















Methodology

Reagents and equipment
Solid CuSO4, distilled water, solid NaCl, 5 100ml volumetric flasks, measuring cylinder, dropper, 200ml beaker, glass rod, 10-mm path length quartz cells, UV-vis spectrometer.

Method
1.      A CuSO4  stock solution of 2.8g is prepared in 100ml distilled water.
2.      Four sample solutions is prepared in the 100ml volumetric flasks by diluting the stock solution, followed by each previously prepared solution, using sample concentrations of 14g/L, 7g/L, 3.5g/L and 1.75g/L.
3.      A small amount of NaCl (,0.1mg) is added in a 100 ml volumetric flask and the flask is filled with the stock solution. This sample is labeled as X.
4.      The absorbance of distilled water is measured and used as a reference.
5.      The absorbance values of the stock solution and of each of the other solutions are measured at 800nm.



EXAMPLE EXPERIMENT GAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS




CONTENTS

CONTENTS
PAGE
Abstract
      2
Introduction
      3
Literature review
      5
Objectives
      6
Methodology
      7
Results
      9
Discussion
     10
Conclusion and recommendation
     13
Reference
     14
Appendix
     15



Abstract

This experiment was about gravimetric determination of chloride. The experiment was carried out to understand the concept of gravimetric analysis from the determination of amount of analyte precipitate, silver chloride. The percentage of silver chloride was also predicted. 
In this experiment, silver chloride was precipitated from the reaction of silver nitrate and sodium chloride. The precipitate was then washed and filtered, followed by the drying and weighing processes to obtain the weight of the precipitate itself. With the known components of the silver chloride precipitate, the weight of chloride could be calculated, and thus the percentage of chloride in the sample of sodium chloride could be calculated. This prediction was based on the assumption that all chlorides in the sample had precipitated to form silver chloride which was then weighed accurately.
It was important to ensure that all the chlorides present had reacted in forming the precipitate. Thus, the settled precipitate was tested with more silver nitrate to ensure complete precipitation. Stirring helped to prevent bumping of the solution during heating and the danger of loss of precipitate. However, precipitate might not be completely dry because it was only heated in the oven for one hour. This caused the weight of silver chloride obtained to be higher than the predicted value because water was present in the precipitate.










Introduction

Gravimetric analysis, by definition, includes all methods of analysis in which the final stage of the analysis involves weighing. Often, its purpose is to determine the mass or quantity of an analyte in the original sample when the weight and quantity of the reacted sample is known.
Gravimetric analysis is one of the most accurate and precise methods of macro quantitative analysis. This is because it involves simple steps and usually simple equipment, therefore giving less room for instrumental errors. The calculation involved does not involve complicated calculation series which affects the accuracy of the result. This explains why gravimetric analysis is the method to obtain the atomic masses of many elements up to six figure accuracy.
Gravimetric analysis can be divided into two categories, namely precipitation and volatilization, both to produce a solid state of the analyte. In the process of gravimetric analysis by precipitation, the analyte is selectively converted to an insoluble form, with the reaction with suitable reagent. Filtration will then be carried out to separate the precipitate from the solution or mixture. The separated precipitate is dried or ignited, possibly to another form, and is accurately weighed. From the weight of the precipitate and knowledge of its chemical composition, the weight of anlyte can be calculated in the desired form.
While gravimetric analysis provides high accuracy and low probability of errors, it is often time consuming, requires considerable attention to details and is limited to single element or limited group of elements at a time.

EXAMPLE EXPERIMENT LIQUID EXTRACTION



CONTENTS

CONTENTS
PAGE
Abstract
      2
Introduction
      3
Literature review
      5
Objectives
      7
Methodology
      8
Results
     10
Discussion
     11
Conclusion and recommendation
     15
Reference
     16
Appendix
     17





Abstract

This is an experiment to study the effectiveness of two different types of liquid extraction, namely single extraction and multiple extractions. The solute, crystal violet was to be extracted from its aqueous solution.
Part A of the experiment involved simple extraction, which is single extraction using a fixed volume of organic solvent, 10ml dichloromethane. The extraction process was carried out using a seperatory funnel and the aqueous crystal violet left from the extraction was transferred into a test tube for later comparison with Part B of the experiment. In Part B of the experiment, similar procedure was carried out, but instead of using 10ml dichloromethane all in once, the extraction was done two times, with 5ml dichloromethane each. The aqueous crystal violet collected from this part of the experiment was compared with that in Part A of the experiment.
The colour intensity of the solutions gave an idea of how effective the extraction was. This is because the more crystal violet was present in the aqueous solution, the more purple the solution was. Higher amount of crystal violet in the aqueous solution indicated a less effective extraction, since less crystal violet was drawn into the organic solvent. Therefore, the aqueous solvent with a higher intensity of purple colour was obtained from a less effective extraction.
In this experiment, the organic solvent, dichloromethane must be handled with care and goggles must be worn, because excess exposure to the substance causes cancer. During the procedure of extraction, the seperatory funnel must be opened after shaking the contents in it because vigorous shaking of the contents produces vapour. The high pressure inside the funnel might explode the apparatus and cause injuries if it wasn’t released.








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maaplah kalau x lawak..hihih =P

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